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1. These rules have been adapted for the special needs of the IASAS Model U.N. Conference. Though some adjustments may be contrary to what specifically happens in the United Nations itself, they are made in consideration of time, and to expedite debate. Nonetheless, The Model United Na­tions for East Asia ("A 3 Day Play") conveys the essence of the procedure, promise, drama, and problems of the World Body.

 2. Scope:
These rules are self-sufficient and shall be considered adopted in advance of the session. No other rules of procedure are applicable.

3. Language:
English shall be the official and working language of the session.

4. Statements by the Secretariat:
The Secretary-General, or a member of the Secretariat designated by them as their representative, may at any time address the session.

5. Delegations:
Each member nation shall be represented by one voting delegate. In addition, delegations will include one alternate representative only.

6. Credentials:
The credentials of all delegates have been accepted prior to the opening session. Any representative to whose admission a member objects shall be seated provisionally with the same rights as other represen­tatives.

7. Action relating to the modification of rights, privileges, or credentials of any member may not be initialed without the written consent of the Secretary-General. Each delegate must, at all times, have his name plate in full view or else may lose possession of speaking and voting rights for that session.

8. Any member who wishes to challenge the credentials of a fellow delegate must follow this procedure. A motion for a Change of Agenda calling for a Change of Status must be submitted to the Secretary­ General with the signatures of twenty-five (25) nations. If the delegates receive written approval for the Motion concerning the Change of Status and the Motion for Change of Agenda has been passed by a 2/3 majority, then the change of Status Motion must be considered. There should be two speakers For and two speakers Against. This Motion must also receive a 2/3 majority.

9. Minute of Meditation:
Immediately after the opening of the first plenary session and immediately before the closing of the final plenary session, the Chair shall invite all members to observe one minute of meditation.

10. Quorum:
The Chair may declare a session open and permit debate when at least one quarter of the members are present. The presence of a majority shall be required for any substantive decision to be taken. A quo­rum shall be assumed present unless specifically challenged and shown to be absent.

11. General Powers of the Chair:
In addition to exercising the powers conferred upon the Chair elsewhere in these rules, the Chair shall declare the opening and closing of each meeting, direct discussions, accord the right to speak, put all questions to a vote, and announce decisions. He or she may also recess or adjourn the session.

12. The chair shall ensure and enforce observance of these rules, and subject to them, he shall rule on Points of Order. He or she shall have complete control of the proceedings, at all sessions. In the exer­cise of these functions, the Chair is at all times subject to these rules and responsible to the General Assembly.

13. Powers of the Secretariat:
The Secretariat shall interpret these rules and their ramifications according to the session. They may also advise the delegates on the possible course of the debate.

14. Courtesy:
All representatives will be expected to show courtesy and respect to those speaking. Those who refuse may be dealt with at the Chair's discretion.

15. Agenda:
The agenda for each session of the General Assembly shall be determined by the Secretary General prior to the session. Each resolution will be given a number in order of submission to the General Assembly. This number will not be changed unless the Sponsor is absent at the time of debate. Then it will be put at the end of the agenda.

16. Changes in the Agenda:
Motions to Change the Agenda are in order only when a main motion is not under consideration. It will require a 2/3 vote in General Assembly. In Committee, the Motion to Change the Agenda must be signed by ten (10) nations and twenty-five (25) nations in General Assembly. After one speaker For and one speaker Against the Motion, the Motion shall be put to a vote.

17. Resolutions:
Delegates may propose Resolutions for Committee consideration in any of the designated topic areas. Authors of a Resolution shall be called its Co-Submittees. The names of the Co-Submittees of a Resolu­tion shall appear in the heading of the printed Resolution; Sponsors and Co-Sponsors appear at the end. To reach the floor, Resolutions must be typed in the correct form, but line numbers may be written in ink.

Questions pertaining to financial issues should not appear in Resolutions, or be raised in Points of Information. (5/03)

18. Competence-Tabling:
A Motion to Question the Competence of a Resolution or amendment must be made when the said Resolution or amendment is on the floor. The Motion is debatable to the extent of one speaker For and one Against; passage requires a majority of members present and voting. Competence Tabling is accepted procedure at Committee Meetings but is not part of the General Assembly.

19. Debate on Resolutions:
The basis for General Assembly proceedings shall be the specific Speakers List for each Resolution. A delegate may have his or her name placed on a Speakers List for a particular Resolution by raising his or her placard at the allotted time. Speakers may address a particular Resolution currently on the floor. They may not address any other topic.

20. Speakers Lists:
The Speakers' List for a Resolution, and for any subsequent Amendments, shall be determined by a show of placards. Delegates must indicate if they are speaking "For", "Against" or "To" the Resolution. Once determined, the Speakers' List will be read or posted by the chair.

21. In the General Assembly there will be no Speakers' List. The Secretary General will ask the chief submitter of the Resolution to be debated to read the Operative Clauses, answer points of Clarification, deliver an Opening Speech, and respond to Points of Information. The chief submitter may then choose to Yield to another delegate, or to Yield the Floor to the Chair who will select the next speaker and subsequent speakers by a show of placards. (5/03)

22. Speeches:
No representative may address the General Assembly without having previously obtained the permis­sion of the Chair. The Chair may call a speaker to order if his or her remarks are not relevant to the subject under discussion.

23. Time Limit on Speeches:
The Chair may limit the time allowed to each speaker and the number of times that representative may speak on any question. This rule needs to be enforced by all chairs. Only two minutes should be al­lowed for speeches. (5/2003) When the debate is limited and a speaker exceeds the allotted time, the Chair shall call him or her to order without delay. Maximum time allotted for a speech on a procedural motion is 1 minute.

24. Note Passing:
Delegates will be permitted to pass notes during session, but only through one of the pages. Notes must be signed on the inside by the country sending the note and properly addressed to the country which is to receive it on the outside. There will be no note passing during voting. If sent to the Chair, notes may also be ruled Dilatory, Absurd, or Frivolous, and the sender may lose his note passing privileges. Notes will be censored. No note passing is permitted during formal speaking. Tearing of note paper during session may result in a one session suspension of privileges. A faculty member may be consulted by the pages.

25. Dilatory, Absurd, or Frivolous Acts:
The Presiding Officer may rule a member Out of Order as Dilatory, Absurd, or Frivolous. That member alone may appeal the ruling of the Chair. If this appeal is not able to receive the support of 2/3 of the members, that member will be Out of Order and shall be denied all privileges to address the body or move any motion while that item of the agenda under consideration remains before the body. That member shall be accorded the right to vote on motions under consideration.

26. Yields:
A delegate who has been granted the right to speak on a substantive issue may yield that right to another specified member. All yields of speaking time should be in periods of l or 2 minutes. Once the original speaker exceeds his portion, he shall be halted by the Chair. The second speaker may then utilize the balance of the overall time period, but may not yield time to any other member, including the original member yielding time. There shall be no yields on procedural motions. In Committee, yields need not be indicated while the Speakers List is being drawn up. They may be made by the delegate at the podium before the beginning of a speech. In General Assembly the yield for speaking time must be submitted in writing to the Chair prior to invitation of debate on the particular Resolution in question.

27. Right to Reply:
All requests for "Right to Reply" will be dealt within the following manner:

a.       Any delegate whose personal or national integrity has been insulted should immediately stand as soon as the offensive statement has been made.

b.       The delegate should not speak.

 c.      Upon completion of the speech in which the perceived insult occurred, the Secretary General will then recognize the delegate to speak at his/her (the 5-0's) discretion. The delegate will speak from his desk.

d.       In General Assembly the right to reply is limited to 30 seconds.

28. Amendments:
In session, a delegate may move to amend any Resolution which has been introduced. All amendments must be in writing. If the original Sponsor of the resolution accepts the amendment, it is considered a friendly amendment and is immediately incorporated into the body of the Resolution. The acceptance of a friendly amendment shall be announced to the session during the course of debate on the Resolution either from the floor or in a substantive speech. If the Submittee of a Resolution does not approve of a proposed amendment, it is considered non-friendly. Before being considered on the floor, non-friendly amendments must receive eight (8) signatures. Only extremely lengthy amendments must be duplicated.

 A non-friendly amendment to any Resolution may be introduced when the Resolution is under consider­ation and the floor is open. Amendments dealing with other Resolutions introduced or Resolutions not relevant to the topic area are out of order.

 When a non-friendly amendment to a Resolution presently on the floor is moved, general debate on the Resolution shall be suspended. Speakers Lists shall be drawn up For and Against the amendment, and this shall take precedence. Once the General Assembly has acted on the amendment, general debate on the Resolution shall resume.

 Only two (2) amendments per Resolution will be allowed in General Assembly. The Chair may rule any amendment Out of Order if, in his or her opinion, it drastically alters the clear intent of the Resolution. This decision is appealable.

 Tertiary amendments are out of order.

29. Closure of Debate:
During debate on a Resolution, a motion to close debate is in order only when the General Assembly has heard at least two speakers For and two Against, or all speakers on one side and at least two on the opposing side.

Motions for Closure of Debate require one speaker For and one speaker Against and the votes of 2/3 of the members present and voting. Any item upon which debate has been closed shall be brought to an immediate vote. Closure of debate is automatic if a particular substantive Speakers List has been exhausted, unless a motion to reopen the Speakers List is passed by a majority. Closure of Debate is also automatic on procedural motions when the specific number of speakers has been heard. In both of these cases, the matter upon which debate has been closed shall be brought to an immediate vote.

If delegates challenge a chair unsuccessfully, they may be penalized by losing speaking or voting privileges. (5/2003)

30. Caucusing:
There will be a separate area provided for the purpose of caucusing. It has been suggested that a set of placards be provided for committee caucusing areas, in blocs, in each committee room. (5/03) No caucusing shall be tolerated in General Assembly. Members who wish to call for caucus may rise to a point of Personal Privilege, or motion for a recess at any time other than when another member has the floor.

31. Division of the Question:
After the debate on any Resolution or amendment has been closed, a delegate may move, in written form with eight (8) signatures, that operative clauses of the proposal be voted upon individually or grouped in any manner. If objection is made to the request for division, the Motion for Division shall be voted on. It is debated by one speaker For and one speaker Against. Division requires a majority of the members present and voting. If the Motion passes, those parts of the substantive proposals which are subsequently passed shall be put to a vote as a whole.

All requests for "Division of The Question" will require eight (8) signatures.

If all the operative parts of the proposal are rejected, the proposal shall be rejected.

32. Voting:
Each member nation shall have one vote.

"Members present and voting" shall be defined as those members casting an affirmative or negative vote.

A simple majority is needed to pass Resolutions in Committee and General Assembly. Members who abstain from voting shall not be considered in reckoning the totals needed to determine the results of the vote. A majority is considered to be one or more than half the members present and voting.

Procedural matters and amendments shall be voted upon by placard only.

Placard votes shall be taken on substantive matters unless a motion from the floor calling for a Roll Call vote is seconded by twelve (12) members. If after a revote, the outcome of a placard vote on a sub­stantive issue is unclear, the Chair may call for a Roll Call vote, or such a motion may be made from the floor, seconded by twelve (12) members.

33. Roll Call Votes:
After closure of debate on a resolution, the final vote will follow Roll-Call procedure. There will be no Roll Call votes in Committee. A placard vote must be within five (5) votes to necessitate a Roll Call vote.

Roll Call votes shall be taken in alphabetical order beginning with a member chosen by the Chair. Members shall answer the Roll Call with either "Yes", "No", or "Pass". A member who passes during the first round of a Roll Call vote shall be requested to vote the second time his or her name is called. No sponsor of the Resolution or amendment, or persons who have spoken on the Resolution or amendment may have the right of explanation.

After the conclusion of the second sequence of voting during which the members who passed initially cast their votes, the Chair shall call for changes in the vote. No members may request a right of explana­tion at this time.

The Chair shall announce the outcome of the vote after the last explanation of vote has been made.

Once voting has commenced, no delegate may interrupt except with a Point of Order in connection with the conduct of the voting. The voting procedure is considered to begin with the calling of the first nation on the Roll, and does not end until the outcome has been announced.

34. Point of Personal Privilege:
In Committee, whenever a delegate experiences personal discomfort which impairs his or her ability to follow the proceedings, that delegate may rise to a Point of Personal privilege in the hope that the source of discomfort will be corrected or removed. While a Point of Personal Privilege may interrupt a speaker, delegates should use this prerogative with the utmost discretion.

35. Point of Order:
After the discussion of any matter, a delegate may rise to a Point of Order to complain of improper parliamentary procedure by the Chair or other delegates. The Point of Order shall be immediately decided by the Chair in accordance with these rules.

A representative rising to a Point of Order may not speak on the substance of the matter under consid­eration. The Chair may, without subject to appeal, rule Out of Order those points which in his or her judgment are dilatory or improper.

Points of Information and Points of Parliamentary Procedure may be raised in the General Assembly. Points of Personal Privilege must be in writing. Points of Order, do however, apply in the General Assembly. (5/03)

36. Warning System:
The Chairman of the session may at any time at his or her discretion place warnings on countries for acts considered undiplomatic. These warnings may not be appealed. The penalty system follows as such:

37.        1st Warning

38.        2nd Warning

39.        3rd Warning

40.        No penalty

41.        No speaking or voting privileges up to the completion of one resolution/ (5/03)

42.        Removal of delegate from the room

43. Appealing the Decision of the Chair:
Any decision of the Chair, with the exception of those matters which are herein explicitly designated unappealable, may be appealed immediately by a delegate. The delegate may speak on behalf of the appeal, and the Chair may speak in defense of the ruling. The appeal shall be put to a vote and the Chair's decision shall stand unless overruled by 2/3 of the members present and voting. A placard vote must be used.

A Chair's ruling that an amendment is Out of Order because it "drastically" alters a resolution's clear intent may be appealed.

There shall be one speaker in favor of the appeal and the Chair may speak against. The appeal shall then be put to a vote, and the Chair's decision shall stand unless overruled by a 2/3 majority of those members present and voting.

44. Point of Parliamentary Inquiry:
In Committee, during the discussion of any matter, when the floor is open, a delegate may rise to a direct Point of Inquiry to the Chair concerning parliamentary procedure. The Chair shall answer the Inquiry in accordance with the rules of procedure. A point of Parliamentary Inquiry may not interrupt a speaker.

45. Adjournment and Recess:
"Adjournment" means cessation of all committee functions for the duration of the conference. "Recess" means suspension of these functions until a time designated by the body.

A motion to Adjourn is Out of Order prior to the lapse of ° of the time allotted for the last meeting of the body. At any time, a delegate may move to recess the session. The Motion shall immediately be put to a vote; a majority is necessary for passage. The Chair may rule a Motion to Recess as Out of Order. A Motion to Recess should contain the amount of time proposed for the recess. The delegates are reminded that recess is different from adjournment.

46. Withdrawal of Motions:

A motion may be withdrawn by its Sponsor at any time before voting on the motion has commenced, provided that it has not been amended by the body. A motion thus withdrawn may be re-introduced by any member.

If a motion has more than one Sponsor, all must agree on the decision to withdraw. Those nations who have signed a substantive motion but who are not considered Sponsors have no voice in a decision to withdraw the motion.

47. Motions in Writing:
In Committee, the Chair may require at any time that all motions, with the exceptions of Point of Order and Points of Personal Privilege, be submitted in writing before they are recognized. Requests to be placed on the Speakers List on any substantive issue shall be submitted in writing, unless the Chair specifically suspends this right.

48. Speaking "To" the Question:
Speaking "To" the particular question shall refer to speaking on a substantive issue without taking a specific pro or con position. Speaking "To" the question shall be permitted in the course of general debate on Resolutions in the topic area on the floor. Speakers "To" the question must be placed on the Speakers List at the time it is determined.

49. Point of Information:
A representative may rise to a Point of Information after a speaker has finished but still has the floor. A point of Information is a question, a request for information from the speaker. The delegate must ask the Chair if the speaker will yield to a Point of Information. The chair has the right to limit the Points of Information.

Leading questions are encouraged if they enhance the discussion under debate. Diplomatic language should be used when asking questions. An Example of a diplomatically worded question is: "Would the delegate from Mozambique please explain line 36 in operative clause 2?" (5/03)

51. Responsibilities of Delegates:
Each delegate has the responsibility of conducting him/herself in a diplomatic manner. Undiplomatic conduct will be looked upon with extreme disfavor by the Secretariat. Violation of this rule may lead to immediate expulsion from the current function.

52. Precedence: Parliamentary Points
a.         May interrupt a speaker [in Committee]
i.         Point of Personal Privilege (Rule 29)

b.         In order only when the floor is open
i.          Point of Parliamentary Inquiry (Rule 33) [in Committee]
ii.          Point of Order (Rule30) [Committee and General Assembly]

c.         Questions after a speech
i.          Point of Information (Rule 38)[Committee and G.A.]

d.         Procedural Motions [Committee] i. Adjournment (Rule 34) ii. Recess (Rule 34)

e.         Motions relevant to Resolutions or amendments
i.          Competence (Rule 14) [Committee]
ii.          Withdrawal of a Motion (Rule 35)

iii.         Closure of Debate (Rule 24)[Committee]
iv.         Division of the Question (Rule 26) [Committee and G.A.]

f.          Substantive motions
i.          Amendments [Committee and General Assembly]
ii.          Introduction of non-friendly amendment (Rule
iii.         Announcement of a friendly amendment (Rule 23)

g.         Resolutions [Committee and G.A.]
i.          Introduction of a Resolution (Rule 13)
ii.          Debate on Resolutions (Rule

53. Right to Statement - Point of Personal Privilege:
Each country, immediately following the Roll Call, or at a time no Resolution is on the floor, will have the Right to Public Statement. This Statement may be on any topic, not related to those under debate. It must be under one minute. All requests for Right to Statement must be in writing with the topic indi­cated. The Chair will grant four
(4) prior to opening debate on a new Resolution. There will be no Points of Information granted.

54. The Prerogative of the Secretary General and Presiding Officers:
The Secretary General may at any time suspend or otherwise change any part of the rules of procedure in order to ensure smooth functioning of the United Nations.

55. Security Council:
Any nation may request in writing that a Resolution be brought before the Security Council. This motion must have the signature of at least eight
(8) countries. If passed, the Resolution will become a Security Council Resolution.

56. Informal debate:
As time limits demand, in the interest of inclusive and participatory Committee sessions in which all countries enjoy the opportunity to state their views, the Committee Chairman may invoke Informal Debate (or "Moderated Caucus"). This will apply especially when deadlines or the simple passage of time would not allow the Speakers List to be completed under standard procedure. Informal Debate consists of one-minute speeches that must contain information or arguments not presented during the Formal Debate. The Speakers List shall be drawn up through a show of placards. Preference shall be given to those who have not spoken during the Formal Debate. Speakers shall not entertain Points of Information. Informal Debate facilitates rapid exchange and allows all to be heard. Under certain circumstances, it may also be utilized in the General Assembly.

57. Equal Time:
Debate on each Issue will have equally allotted time. This is to provide equal opportunity for all speak­ers on given General Assembly Resolutions.

The Secretary General should not change the time limit of speeches, as this will allow for consistency, and will give more delegates an opportunity to speak. (5/03)

58. Focus and Substance in the General Assembly:
It is confirmed that Points of Personal Privilege, Parliamentary Inquiry, and Parliamentary Procedure cannot be raised in General Assembly, Points of Order do, however, apply in G.A.

If the Point of Order is abused in General Assembly and detracts from the substantive exchange with continual and inappropriate disruptions, the Secretary General may require the Point of Order in writing. A skillful Secretary General will use discretion in this and be amenable to legitimate Points of Order. By the same token, he/she will be firm in suppressing illegitimate Points of Order.

59. Phraseology:
The phraseology of the Model United Nations shall be formal so as to accurately simulate diplomatic interaction. Thus, a delegate should say "I move that..." and not "motion to... "A delegate should also say "I rise to a point of..." instead of "point of ..."

60. Special Rights and Privileges of the Secretary General and Chairs:
The Secretary General may at any time suspend or otherwise change any part of the Rules of Procedure in order to insure smooth functioning of the Model United Nations.

61. Procedure for Debating Resolutions in Committee:
Once a Resolution has at least 8 Co-Submitters during the Lobbying/Caucusing period on the first day, then the Resolution can be turned in to the Committee Chairs and the Vetting Committee. The Commit­tee Chairs will decide on the order the Resolutions will be presented to the Committee. The Co­-Submitters of the Resolution chosen first will be notified as soon as possible. The Chair will decide the order of Speakers for the Resolutions. The first Speaker will read the Operative Clauses to the Com­mittee. Then, Points of Clarification are asked.

62. Points of Clarification:
These are questions from the floor asking for explanation of specific words/phrases in the Operative Clauses from the Resolution. After these questions are satisfactorily answered, on of the Co-Submitters will have two minutes to make an Opening Speech.

63. Follow-Up Questions:
At the discretion of the Chair, a Delegate may ask for a Follow-Up Question after asking a Speaker a Point of Information. This decision by the Chair is not subject to Appeal. Typically, the Chair will allow a Follow-Up Question if time permits and if the Speaker has not properly answered the first Point of Information.

64. Motions to Extend:
Delegates may make Motions such as: (1) "I rise to a Motion to Extend Points of Information," and (2) " I rise to a Motion to Extend the Speaker's List." These Motions are made after either Points of Information or the Speaker's List has been exhausted but further questions and information are needed. There is no vote on this Motion. The Motion is decided at the discretion of the Chair or the Secretary General. The decision is not subject to Appeal.

65. Explanation of Vote:
This is a very serious maneuver that requires careful thought. Basically, should a Delegate feel that another Delegate has seriously misrepresented their foreign policy, they may ask the Chair for an Explanation of Vote. This is formally begun in this fashion: Immediately after the vote, there must be a verbal communication to the Chair of the Secretary General (through a Point of Order) announcing the intent, followed directly by a note to them. Should the Chair or the Secretary General-deem the request reasonable, they may ask the particular Delegate if they wish to reconsider or change their vote. This decision by the Chair or Secretary General is not subject to Appeal.

Approval Panel Instructions for Students

Steps for Student Delegates to Follow

1.      Bring one copy of your Resolution to the Approval Panel

2.       Leave it at the "Front Desk" where it will receive a committee number and letter e.g. 10 1 "A" ("A" indicates that it is the first Resolution received on the issue of Ethnic Tensions; "B" indicates that it is the second Resolution received ...)

3.       Come back about 30 minutes later to the Front Desk to see if your Resolution has been read, corrected or approved

4.       If your Resolution needs corrections take it back to the Computer Room and make those corrections.

5.      Bring your corrected Resolution and the original copy (showing the needed corrections) back to the Approval Panel "Front Desk".

6.       Come back about 30 minutes later to the Front Desk to see if your Resolution has been approved.

7.       You do not take your approved Resolution. It will be photocopied by the Secretariat and distributed to delegates prior to debate in your Committee room


1. What can I do during the Committee if I continue to raise my placard but the Chairs do not recognize me?

This is actually a common complaint heard at IASAS MUN Conferences. We'll let you in on a little secret - actually, being noticed begins first thing on Thursday morning at 8:00 am when the Conference begins. Right away, your fellow Delegates are watching you to see if they should try to gather your support. And you can bet the Chairs are watching too. They want to give the mature, knowledgeable Delegates lots of speaking time in the Committee because then the Committee will be a success. So start being recognized as soon as you walk into the Opening Ceremonies.

Then, when the Committee starts, be sure your Chair recognizes you during your Opening Speech. Make a good impression on your Committee, fellow Delegates, and the Chair. Then you will be sure to be called upon during Debate. Remember, the Chairs want to have good speakers at the podium. During Caucusing, be a good diplomat and seek compromise while at the same time accurately repre­senting your country's views. In our opinion, this is the best possible way to ensure that the Chairs will indeed recognize you later.

Nevertheless, if you feel you are still not being recognized, ask some experienced Delegates what they think. See if they notice the bias, too. Chairs will keep a tally of Speakers and it will be easy for you to note any bias against your country. If this still continues, then write a note to your Chair expressing your concerns and explaining why you should be called on. For example, if you have a relevant question or your country holds an important view on the issue. Your Chair should then take note of it and call on you as soon as possible. If you continue to be ignored, direct your problem to the Secretary General or Parliamentarian. If the problem persists (this should only be used as a last resort) contact your advisor.

2. What steps can I take towards getting my Resolution on the Committee Agenda?

One of the biggest goals of the Model United Nations is to build consensus through diplomacy. Thus, when Caucusing amongst other Committee Delegates it is essential to come to an agreement on a solution to the issue at hand. Resolutions that are clearly the product of positive compromises will be highly considered by the Vetting Committee. The Vetting Committee is made up of MUN Faculty Advisors. They look over all the Resolutions and make suggestions to the Chairs re: which ones are appropriate and which ones they believe will encourage lots of Debate in the Committee.

Although Debate is highly encouraged, finding consensus is what the United Nations strives for in reality and should be emulated by us. However, it is important to remember that your country's core policies must be maintained and manifested in the Resolution. Legitimate solutions are also obviously important. The Vetting Committee will most likely not consider resolutions with impossible or impractical demands. So, practice diplomacy. look for compromise, and accurately represent your country's point of view. This will absolutely impress the Chairs and will go a long way to getting your Resolution on the Agenda.

3. I still want to participate, so what are other things I can do if my Resolution is not picked?

If the Vetting Committee does not pass your Resolution, there are still many opportunities for you to be seen and heard in your Committee and the General Assembly. First, send a note to your Chair inform­ing them of your situation. Explain to them that you have legitimate questions to be asked or valid points that need to be made in a speech. Be sure that this is a true statement because if you are chosen and you do not add to the Debate in a positive way, the Chairs may very well overlook you in future times. Next, prepare a `To' speech on the issue under Debate. Plus, make sure you have a dynamite Right to Statement speech. This is a terrific way to impress the Chairs with your speaking abilities. Plus, you can always make an Unfriendly Amendment to the Resolution. That is always a great way to get some speaking time.

 4. How do I get onto the Speaker's List when a Resolution is being Debated?

The Speaker's List is formulated prior to the Debate for each Resolution, and directly after the Resolu­tion is read before the Committee. So that Chairs will notice you, it is important for you to ask valid questions and make statements that positively add to Debate. The Chairs will take notice of Delegates who would like to speak `For', `Against', or `To' a Resolution. If you are not chosen to be on the Speaker's List, it is still possible to make your country's position on this issue heard. Asking questions at the end of each speech during Points of Information can do this.

5. What steps can I take if I feel the Chair is being biased or incompetent?

If you feel the Chair is being biased or incompetent, there are several steps you can take. One of the first things you should do is to write a note to the Chairs concerning the problem you are facing. If after having done this repeatedly, you are still not being noticed or if you feel the Chair continues to act poorly, then you should talk with other Delegates in your Committee to ensure that there is a mutual feeling, or agreement, towards your Chair's decisions and actions, which do not seem to be appropri­ate. If there seems to be consensus amongst your peers you have the option of questioning the compe­tency of your Chair. This is however, a risky action to take. Therefore, it is important that you are ready to suffer the consequences of such an action (see Rules of Procedure #35).

6. If I'm giving a speech at the lectern, what do I do if I am asked a question and I don't know the answer?

This question is probably the one heard the next most often at MUN Conferences.

If you are giving a speech and then someone asks you a question that you are unsure of the answer or do not know the answer, it can be easily remedied by replying with, "I'll get back to you later." Even if you do not know the answer to the question directed to you, it is important to always remain poised and confident. Simply say, "Thank you," nod your head, and smile. Obviously though, you cannot do this too often or the Chairs will think you are incompetent and will not call you in the future. Worse, your fellow Delegates will lose confidence in you and will not want to work with you on trying to pass a Resolution.

As you probably already know, the best way to handle this situation is to arrive at the Conference fully prepared. You become prepared by researching the topic thoroughly. Also, you should be doing lots of practice sessions at your school in preparation for the actual Conference. You can ask fellow Delegates questions and have experienced MUNers "grill" you -just like what will happen at ISB in November.

Sometimes, when you are at the podium, it is okay to say, "I'm sorry. But I don't know the answer to that question. Perhaps we can discuss it later and try to reach a decision together." This also works. But again, only use this occasionally. Nothing works better than being prepared and practicing before­hand.

7. I'm afraid people will laugh at me if I ask a dumb question or say something stupid.

Hopefully, your Faculty Advisor would have given you lots of opportunities before the Conference to practice your public speaking skills. But truthfully, there is nothing like "jumping in and getting your feet wet." All speakers, even the good ones, had to begin somewhere. In a nice, safe place such as a Model UN Conference, this is a perfect place to begin. The Chairs are there to help you too. They will make sure you are treated respectfully. The Chairs will not allow you to be embarrassed.

Sources: IASAS Handbook

H. Berghuis